Sure. I'll go for #2. (You might post the list for others who want to contribute.)
(ii) Never use a long word where a short one will do.
Long words are harder to read than short ones, even if you know what they mean. "The tintinnabulation audible though emanating from no corporeal genesis." I can puzzle it out (after all, I wrote it.) But if I'd said "ringing in the ears," you wouldn't have to puzzle it out; you'd know at once.
It's not just for ease of use. Orwell mentions "the liquidation of undesirable elements," which means "mass killing." The long-word evasion makes it easier to trick people, or oneself, into going along with horrible crimes. Or, as Orwell says,
Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, "I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so." Probably, therefore, he will say something like this:
While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement.
...politics [thereby becomes] a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred and schizophrenia.
Here's the context of his rules:
The rules are generally interpreted as follows:
Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
Stop saying things "Achilles heel" or "his plate is full"; say "weakness" or "he has a lot of work".
Never use a long word where a short one will do.
Don't needlessly use longer words for the sake of sounding intellectual.
If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
Don't be redundant. Don't needlessly use words and make your sentences longer in an attempt to sound eloquent.
Never use the passive where you can use the active.
Don't say "Bad sentences were written by Gentleman Engineer"; say "Gentleman Engineer wrote bad sentences". ;)
Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
Don't say things like "You have carte blanche to create a chef d'oeuvre. It is your raison d'être. Voilà!" because you have perfectly good English words to say the same thing: "You have complete freedom to create a masterpiece. It is your reason for being. There you have it!"
Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.
The rules are actually guidelines. If trying to following them makes you harder to understand then don't follow them.
Huh. I was taught the active/passive thing in grade school. Did Orwell popularize that rule?
I suspect that stating the rule predates him, but IDK. It's certain that the passive voice was a drag even before Orwell.
For sure. He just brought it back to the attention of the masses.
Such thoughts would exist within literature much in the manner that brutalism would exist within architecture.
Brutalism can be quite beautiful. There are loads of fans of brutalism out there.
One would defer to that opine in the possession of a certain Welsh Prince...
The overuse of metaphor is definitely noticeable in bloviation. If something is handed on a silver platter, or if someone has a swan song, it's time to edit.
Attend any business meeting of any kind anywhere in English-speaking North America and start counting the sports analogies. Brutal.